Exhaust failure


First, a large exhaust noise

    Great exhaust noise coming from the car.


    l, muffler or exhaust pipe damage.

    2, exhaust manifold damage.

    Second, the oil consumption is too high, take the blue smoke exhaust pipe


    1, the engine has failed.

    2, the engine valve seal bad.

    3, the crankcase ventilation system working poor.

    4, engine piston ring wear.

    Third, the exhaust has white smoke or steam

    Start car and found a white exhaust smoke, if the weather is cold, this is normal. However, if the engine hot car, a white smoke is a problem. This phenomenon will continue for some time after the general, the more serious problem of white smoke more.


    1 cylinder engine red pad.

    2, the engine cylinder head or cracked variant.

    3, the engine block cracked.

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spark plug inspection method


Spark plug condition will directly affect the engine power and economy. The condition usually can identify the following 6 methods.

    (1) Remove the spark plug appearance observation, first observed if there is positive electrode gap oil, coke, if the spark plug condition is that bad; and then observe the ceramic insulator for cracks, if so, also showed that spark plug condition bad. Normal operating conditions the spark plug, an insulator should be brownish red skirt.

    (2) measurement or round with a feeler gauge measure the spark plug electrode gap, the normal value should be 0.6-0.7mm, but with electronic ignition, the electrode gap can be increased to 1.0-1.2mm.

    (3) touch method engine a few minutes, turn off the engine, and then touch the spark plug ceramic insulator site, if the temperature feel lower, indicating that the spark plugs, bad working conditions.

    (4) The flashover test unscrew the spark plug, put it in the cylinder head, aligned with the central high-voltage spark plug wire arcing bolts for the test, if the spark plug electrodes have a “Baba” sound of the blue sparks, indicating that the spark plugs good condition; if no spark between spark plug electrodes, and other parts of the performance of normal, then that bad spark plug condition should be replaced.

    (5) short-circuit test start the engine, idle it, and then by tanks on the spark plug with a screwdriver to do short-circuit test (ie the first contact with the cylinder head screwdriver, the screwdriver in the spark plug wire central bolt ride), if the engine is running short circuit instability , indicating that the normal spark plug cylinder; if no change in engine speed short circuit, then the poor condition of the cylinder spark plug.

    (6) Compare the test bench to spark plugs in the electrical test access lines, for comparison with the standard spark plug test. Good spark plug, arcing between the electrodes should be uninterrupted.

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Pump causes and treatment of seizure

Car engine fuel injection pump diesel fuel supply system of the “heart.” Card within the precision coupling pump lag will cause the engine speed instability, and in severe accidents lead to engine stalling and Speed.

    The reasons for catching pump

    For the old pump, mostly because of its seizure of diesel is not clean between the plunger and plunger sleeve mechanical impurities, or the plunger and plunger sleeve surface is strained, or bump the plunger is at the top edges of the glitches To.

    For a new fuel pump, the catching for the following reasons:

    (1) At present, some pump manufacturers and pump maintenance units in the debugging time, pay attention to selection of high quality diesel fuel, resulting in the commissioning of the gum content of diesel fuel a larger, higher acidity. This debugging, precision coupling in the pump with a layer of adhesion of the film remaining. If the fuel pump storage for too long, this film will gradually build the organic layer of sediment and gumming, installed capacity will be generated after the seizure phenomenon.

    (2) pump storage improper care, packaging and strict anti-rust material moisture leakage or damage to equipment, tubing connector dust cap is damaged or lost, and would have a seizure phenomenon.

    Card processing lag

    For the old fuel pump, can find out by catching the plunger and remove, clean with a clean diesel. If the plunger is pulled mechanical impurities, can be washed clean of oil mill. If the plunger is bump the top of glitches (the naked eye difficult to observe), then indent the top of the plunger when the plunger comprising Shibuya card will be issued when this time must not be repeated rotation or tic plunger, so as not to scratch piston glitch sets. The correct approach is: position pull the plunger to the top edges and corners set with the plunger center into the hole flush, slowly turning the plunger, then there will be a sense block. Go to a location when the block disappears, that is that just part of the plunger top corners bump into the hole in the plunger set at. Remember a position where the top of the plunger the plunger set of edges introduced, bump grinding with fine sand bar area. Grinding, the sand bar axis plane and the plunger was 45 º, gently push and pull a few, to eliminate angular burr can be. But not too much grinding, so as not to affect the starting angle of the cylinder oil consistency and uniformity of oil supply.

    For the catching of the new fuel pump, the following method can be used:

    (1) to the fuel pump and governor injected the right amount of gasoline or diesel, repeatedly turn the camshaft, the fuel pump tappet and the governor to fly freely exercise ball and other components to prevent corrosion card, resulting in engine rides.

    (2) For the upper and lower physical decomposition of the fuel injection pump (eg 485,695,4125,6130 other models used by the Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ No fuel pump), the pump can be flat, open the side cover, dumping fastening nut under the pump head, remove the pump head, hand clamp plunger live roots, and slowly out of trouble cylinder plunger and spring (note that any bumps plunger), petrol or diesel with clean repeated washing, cleaning refitted (Note plunger adjustment arm to adjust the fork into the inside), and alternately tighten the pump head nut, rotate the camshaft, pulled the pump control handle review.

    (3) the overall fuel injection (such as 6110,6135,6160, and other models used by the A, B-type pump), to open the side cover, rotate the camshaft, with a screwdriver jammed into the gentle care plunger spring lever to force the plunger down reset, the plunger sleeve to bare root injection plunger outside the clean gasoline or diesel, and turn the camshaft. Reciprocating plunger to be freely moving around sensitive after the second rack, put the net clean oil, the governor shell into the amount of clean oil.

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Complete Injector Assembly


Ebay Store:   http://stores.ebay.com/chinahanjipartsplant


 MAZDA  DN0PDN121  B2500 WL/-T



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All Type of Injector Nozzles Part NO. and Application

Ebay Store:   http://stores.ebay.com/chinahanjipartsplant


 DN0PD21  093400-5210  [DENSO] KUBOTA
 DN0PD37  093400-5370  [DENSO] MITSUBISHI
 DN0PD58  093400-5581  [DENSO] TOYOTA 2LT/E
 DN0PD619  093400-619  [DENSO] TOYOTA 1KZ-TE
 DN0PD628  093400-6330  [DENSO] 1HZ LATE *093400-6280*
 DN0PDN112  105007-1120  [ZEXEL] MITSUBISHI
 DN0PDN113  105007-1130  [ZEXEL] NISSAN TD27, TD42
 DN0PDN121  105007-1210  [ZEXEL] MAZDA, NISSAN
 DN10PD76  093400-5760  [DENSO] TOYOTA 2LT
 DN10PDN129  105007-1290  [ZEXEL] MITSUBISHI 4M40
 DN10PDN130  105007-1300  [ZEXEL] MITSUBISHI
 DN10PDN135  105007-1350  [ZEXEL] MITSUBISHI 4M40
 DN20PD32  093400-5420  [DENSO] TOYOTA 1HZ EARLY
 DN4PD1  093400-5010  [DENSO] TOYOTA 1C/2C
 DN4PD57  093400-5640  [DENSO] TOYOTA 3L
 DN4PD681  093400-681  [DENSO] TOYOTA 5L
 DN4PDN101  105007-1010  [ZEXEL] ISUZU, NISSAN
 DN0SD174  0 434 250 046  [BOSCH]
 DN0SD253    CHEV V8
 DN0SD304  0 434 250 898  [BOSCH] CHEV 6.5 TURBO
 DLLA139P400    [BOSCH]
 DLLA139P982    [BOSCH]
 DLLA140P027    [BOSCH]
 DLLA140P271  9 430 084 731  [BOSCH]
 DLLA140P517  0 433 171 371  [BOSCH] CDC
 DLLA140PN013  105017-0130  [ZEXEL] KUBOTA
 DLLA143PN265    [ZEXEL]
 DLLA144P184  0 433 171 161  [BOSCH] MAN
 DLLA145P030    [BOSCH]
 DLLA145P415    [BOSCH]
 DLLA145P606  0 433 171 454  [BOSCH] CUMMINS, CDC
 DLLA145PN238    [ZEXEL]
 DLLA146P154  0 433 171 165  [BOSCH] SAAB
 DLLA146P166  0 433 171 149  [BOSCH] MAN
 DLLA146PN055  105017-0550  [ZEXEL] ISUZU 4JB1T
 DLLA147P680  0 433 171 495  [BOSCH] KDH
 DLLA150P007  0 433 171 300  [BOSCH]
 DLLA150P028    [BOSCH]
 DLLA150P082    [BOSCH]
 DLLA150P105  0 433 171 098  [BOSCH] STEYER
 DLLA150P115  0 433 171 104  [BOSCH] DRESSER, FIAT ALLIS
 DLLA150P174  9 430 084 717  [BOSCH]
 DLLA150P24  093400-5240  [DENSO] TOYOTA 12HT TURBO
 DLLA150P326  0 433 171 231  [BOSCH] IVECO
 DLLA150P52  0 433 171 052  [BOSCH] VOLVO
 DLLA150P558  0 433 171 410  [BOSCH] DAF
 DLLA150P59  093400-5590  [DENSO] TOYOTA 14B
 DLLA150P61  093400-5610  [DENSO] TOYOTA 11B
 DLLA150P61  0 433 171 061  [BOSCH] VOLVO
 DLLA150P767    [BOSCH]
 DLLA150P77  093400-5770  [DENSO] TOYOTA 1HDT 12V
 DLLA150PN021  105017-0211  [ZEXEL] MAZDA
 DLLA150PN088  105017-0880  [ZEXEL] KOMATSU
 DLLA152P045    [BOSCH]
 DLLA152PN009  105017-0090  [ZEXEL] KOMATSU, NISSAN
 DLLA152PN014  105017-0140  [ZEXEL] KOMATSU
 DLLA152PN063  105017-0630  [ZEXEL] KOMATSU
 DLLA153PN152    [ZEXEL]
 DLLA153PN178  105017-1780  [ZEXEL] ISUZU 4JB1-NA
 DLLA154P089    [BOSCH]
 DLLA154PN005  105017-0050  [ZEXEL] ISUZU 4JA1, 4JB1
 DLLA154PN006  105017-0060  [ZEXEL] ISUZU 4JB1
 DLLA154PN007  105017-0070  [ZEXEL] MAZDA T3500
 DLLA154PN0171  105017-0171  [ZEXEL] ISUZU
 DLLA154PN061  105017-0610  [ZEXEL] ISUZU 4BE1
 DLLA155P114  0 433 171 103  [BOSCH] CDC
 DLLA155P135  0 433 171 123  [BOSCH] CDC
 DLLA155P16  093400-5160  [DENSO] TOYOTA 11B
 DLLA155P273  0 433 171 205  [BOSCH] DRESSER
 DLLA155P274  0 433 171 206  [BOSCH] CDC
 DLLA155P277  0 433 171 208  [BOSCH] CUMMINS
 DLLA155P622    [BOSCH]
 DLLA155PN118  105017-1180  [ZEXEL] MITSUBISHI
 DLLA157PN090  105017-0900  [ZEXEL] NISSAN
 DLLA158P456  0 433 171 329  [ZEXEL] KDH-DMI
 DLLA158P691  0 433 171 506  [BOSCH[ KDH
 DLLA158P729  0 433 171 529  [BOSCH] KDH
 DLLA158P730  0 433 171 530  [BOSCH] KDH
 DLLA158PN401    [ZEXEL]
 DLLA160P3  093400-5030  [DENSO] MITSUBISHI 4D31
 DLLA160P50  093400-5500  [DENSO] MITSUBISHI 4D31
 DLLA160PN010  105017-0100  [ZEXEL] MITSUBISHI
 DLLA160PN159  105017-1590  [ZEXEL] ISUZU 4HF1
 DLLA161PN109  105017-1090  [ZEXEL] ISUZU 6HE1
 DLLA168P426  0 433 171 306  [BOSCH] KDH-DMF
 DSLA158P974  0 445 120 008  CHEV DURAMAX
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Cummins Engine oil pressure

Oil oil to 107 ° C (225 ° F) during the normal engine oil pressure listed in the table.
Series of idle engine                            speed                                     when rated
NH, NT ,855-R ,855-L                   34/138 (5 / 20)                      276/517 (40/75)
V-903, VT-903                               34/72 (5 / 25)                         276/448 (40/65)
V-378, V-504, V-555                      69/207 (10/30)                     310/586 (45/85)
V-1710, V-1710-L                           103 (15)                                   345 (50)
KTA-1150                                        103 (15)                                    310/483 (45/70)
KTA-2300                                        138 (20)                                    310/483 (45/70)
KTA-3067                                        138 (20)                                    310/483 (45/70)

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Precision coupling of the three major diesel engine components

Vice plunger, delivery valve and fuel injection nozzles are precision coupling of the three diesel engines. The technology directly affects the engine power and economy. Three precision coupling remain always in good technical condition, is to use an important part of maintenance.
Three precision coupling of normal life in general for the 2 500 h or more. However, according to survey life of more than 1 500 h were the the same, more in general about 500 h, and some even use only tens of hours. In addition to manufacturing quality and keeping irregularities reasons, in order to chaos chaotic demolition disposal, assembly improper adjustment, improper cleaning, use of substandard fuel, etc., causing the three major causes of damage is even more common parts.
1, the three major causes of damage precision coupling
(1) arbitrary demolition of hand because many machines are more common fuel supply system failure, so the diesel engine in the event of failure, more often than not, after careful analysis, to find the causes of causes, the targeted inspection, exclusion, but each of the fuel supply system Check the demolition and replacement. Three precision coupling of the processing, assembly accuracy is very strict and can not be demolished. Installation of a demolition can shorten the life of dozens or even hundreds of hours. May also be due to demolition, caused by improper installation of bump, dirt, scratches and even further deterioration of the deformation state of the technology.
(2) improper cleaning cleaning precision coupling of three components mixed together with the other, the use of dirty cleaning fluid, the new precision coupling of the three options are not thoroughly cleaned rust oil. Couples in the dress before, while cleaning, but not law. Some fabrics, cotton yarn even wipe the surface directly; some will be washed clean on the non-matching parts and clean place. The results of these practices were scratches the surface of its work, the adhesion machinery debris, destruction coupled parts assembly space, resulting in seizure occurring even pieces, burned and other failures.
(3) Fuel poor quality or dirty oil, low-grade fuel (kerosene and oil, diesel oil mixture), and its lubricating performance, sealing properties and viscosity can not meet the requirements, will lead to a low pressure pump oil pump wear increased and fuel injector coking and other failures. In addition, the fuel without purification, using the tools dirty fuel, oil filtration equipment damage, install drain seals, wrong or damaged equipment, remove the filter so that the oil “flow” and other wrong-doings, will make three shorten the service life of precision coupling.
(4) improper assembly hand in order to prevent oil spills some machines will be a tight valve seat and the injector screw tight cap too tight, so that the injector body, the plunger seat cover and the oil too much stress, deformation , with the precision of the destruction, so that damage to the obstruction of movement coupled parts.
And some machine instead of hand-wound copper wire with a pad of asbestos, because asbestos insulation, asbestos rope wound will seriously affect the injector cooling, resulting in high temperature injector needle and burnt to death.
Hand and some machine installed in the fuel injection assembly, used thin, too thick copper pad, this will change the distance of the fuel injected into the combustion chamber, thus affecting the formation of the mixture, the engine is not strong, difficult to activate. In the direct injection engine, the copper pad is too thin will happen injector piston hit the head.
(5) injection pressure to adjust properly replace or adjust the fuel injection nozzle pressure, the injection pressure set too low or too high, both will shorten the life of fuel injection nozzles. If injection pressure is too low will result in high pressure gas cylinder back, so that needle stuck even pieces; if injection pressure is too high, not only wear increased fuel injection nozzles, but also increase the plunger and out the valve, Deputy wear.
(6) Failure to timely maintenance of diesel engine burning oil, burning bad, if not timely troubleshooting, remove coke, fuel injector will be the early damage.
(7) any increase in engine speed hand to make some machines run fast motorcycles, free to engine speed increased. Some of the pump rack to small throttle toggle the direction of 2 to 3 teeth; some direct control of the throttle with adjustable arms; some interval to remove the few grains of ball speed. Actually, this result will not only accelerate the wear of three precision coupling, and can easily cause major coaster accident.
Caused more than shorten the service life of precision coupling of three reasons are caused by improper maintenance, machine hand to pay attention only to take positive measures, the three will extend the service life of precision coupling, fuel supply system will greatly reduce the failure .
2, the preventive measures
(1) the fuel used to meet the requirements, strict implementation of the fuel sedimentation, filtration system. After filling the fuel at least 48 h before precipitation; tank cleaning is 500 h, refueling equipment to clean, refuel with a silk filter, preferably with a closed fuel filter equipment, fuel, maintenance regulations released by the work of precipitation Cup and the precipitation of the oil tank, timely cleaning and replacement of diesel oil filter, filter installation to ensure the effective filter to prevent short circuits; should be based on seasonal temperature changes in the prescribed standard grade fuel, do not use oil mixture; fuel storage must To ensure the seal.
(2) Couples should pay attention to dismantling, cleaning should be separate and not mixed with other components to avoid the bump scratch.
(3) to the attention of the assembly tightening torque required to ensure the even parts are in good technical condition. Such as the installation of nozzle pressure cap when the pressure cap to check the status of the use of long-term deformation of the pressure cap should be replaced. Install pressure cap tightening torque should be appropriate (0.5886 ~ 0.7848MPa), do not force too much, otherwise easily damage the injector. When using the old pressure cap, you must carefully remove the inside of the carbon deposition. Besides the tight valve seat must meet the required tightening torque.
(4) improve the failure analysis and determine the ability to avoid disassemble to adjust. If there is no disassembly and adjustment of equipment, do not own troubleshooting, repair stations or please go to the maintenance people.
(5) Diesel is not the long-term overload and overspeed. Because the job will overload the engine temperature is too high, causing the nozzle needle Couples stuck. Overspeed will cause the machine costs of oil, wear faster, speed is too high even for Speed, very dangerous consequences.

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Fault analysis and tractor repair

Tractor’s failure are diverse, have the causes are more complex. A failure may exhibit a variety of signs, a sign may reflect a variety of failures. This gives fault analysis has brought some difficulties. For a fault, probably due to many, but the coordination of tractors in many parts of the continuum, the organic link between them determine the cause of various failures there is a certain regularity. Therefore, according to circumstances and experience, to analyze the reasons for the failure to determine tractor.
First, there are six signs tractor malfunction
1. Smell abnormal smell of the exhaust with oil and rubber, friction plates and the smell of burning insulation, etc.;
2. The appearance of abnormal exhaust black smoke, white smoke or blue smoke, tractor oil spills, leakage and water leakage, front wheel swing in motion, lights flickering, etc.;
3. Temperature abnormal engine overheating, coolant temperature, transmission oil temperature is too high or the rear axle, brakes overheating, etc.;
4. Sounds collide issued abnormal mechanical knocking, exhaust discharge of guns, the speakers sound hoarse, etc.;
5. Abnormal fuel consumption, excessive consumption of oil and cooling water, sump oil level abnormal increase or decrease too fast, etc.;
6. The role of abnormal start-up difficulties, difficulties linked to files or extract files, steering, Zhidongshiling and so on. These are all signs of failure of tractors to the “signal”, machine hand analysis should be specific, timely diagnosis and troubleshooting. Avoid undue loss.
Second, the failure prediction
1. Shape predicted shape observed by tractor, if unusual, such as the tractor parked on a flat surface tilt, abnormal tire wear, scratches, there are parts missing, etc., machine hand should arouse vigilance;
2. Gap predict the gap in different parts tractor has its standard value, if the gap is too large or too small, that is, that with failure;
3. Leakage predict such as tractors in some parts of the sealing performance deterioration, leaking, leaks, oil spills, leakage and so on;
4. All kinds of tractor fuel oil consumption projections are the standard range, where there is significant increase in fuel consumption, indicating that implicit memory failure tractor;
5. Sound forecast that some parts of tractors in operation to issue abnormal sound, indicating that the component has failed;
6. Odor while driving forecast, if the smell abnormal smell (pills only to discover, etc.), indicating that the vehicle is defective;
7. The temperature is forecast in the sense of driving the temperature is too high, or half-way stop checks of vehicles touch each part of the normal temperature, such as touching the brake drums, tires, rear axle, gearbox shell, with its temperature, so that hands can not stand it Failure to show that the existence of tractors;
8. Performance prediction of tractor performance with a variety of growth and decline in mileage, under normal circumstances, this process is slow and smooth, no obvious signs, if a sudden deterioration in the road in the performance, the show has failed.
Third, part of the troubleshooting method
1. The steering wheel shaking earthquake, earthquake front swing fault is the steering wheel and front wheel shaking his head shaking phenomenon is improper wheel alignment, caster angle is too small result. In the absence of case detection equipment should try with the front axle leaf spring rear stopper bearing wedge-shaped iron plane, so that the front axle after the turn, further increase the caster angle, you can return to normal after the test run.
2. Sudden shortage of oil supply failure occurred in operation less than tractors, exhaust air replacement plunger, nozzle, still not effective, that is, the injection needle injector ejector side of the small ball mill to fuel injection can not be caused by atomization. At this point should be replaced by a small steel ball, bicycle wheel can also be used if there is no ball instead.
3. High-pressure tubing wear high-pressure tubing tractor oil leakage at both ends of the convex head and fuel injector, delivery valve series of oil leakage occurring at the wear and tear, pads can be cut from a circular cylinder of waste copper, in the middle of a rolling mill hole slip between the pad hole in the Convexity can meet their urgent needs.
4. Speed profile after the jump fault free operation of tractors, speed file after the free dance phenomenon is fork shaft slot wear, weak fork springs, connecting rod joints caused by some of the gap is too large. Positioning should be repaired at this time slot, replace the fork springs, connecting rod joint space narrowing, hanging files in place will ensure that the normal speed.
5. Diesel oil burning diesel engine burning oil failed to take take the blue smoke blue smoke, in addition to checking whether the wear of cylinder liner piston set, piston ring stretch is weakened, the oil is added too much oil pan, air filter oil level is too high and other reasons, Attention should also check the valve rod and valve guides with the gap is too large the potential causes.
6. Hydraulic tubing fatigue impairment fault hydraulic tubing and the hydraulic oil temperature change frequently, resulting in frequent wall relaxation, impairment of fatigue easily lead to accidents. To effectively extend the service life of hydraulic hose, preferably with a thin wire into the firing spring tubing for support.
7. Hydraulic brake failure Brake failure to carefully check the brake master cylinder and wheel cylinders, brake fluid replacement is time to thoroughly exclude the air brake pipe and the brake pedal to see whether the scientific level. The locomotive air brake adjustment to check the work of the maximum braking pressure, brake cups and hoses checked whether abnormal changes.
8. Oil pump failure to address the poor performance of major repair or maintenance of the locomotives first start up the oil pump does not pump problem, oil filter or the tubing should be relieved, and then oiling hole to fill out from the body oil, leading to immediate Shanghao oil filter or oil indicator tube launched, oil will be pumped up.

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The structure and function of injector

Diesel fuel injection system will fuel atomization and distribution of air mixture in the combustion chamber and fuel injector components as (fuel injector). It is mainly from the nozzle and injector body composition. It is installed on the cylinder head and the angle depends on the design of the combustion chamber. Injector spray characteristics include aerosol particle size, fuel-air distribution, the spray direction, range and spread of cone angle. These features should be consistent with the requirements of diesel engine combustion system, in order to improve the mixture formation and combustion, and obtain a higher power and thermal efficiency. Injector is divided into open and closed two. Open injector structure is simple, but the atomization bad, are rarely used. Closed injector widely used in various diesel engine (see figure).
Nozzle body by a needle valve and needle valve for precision coupling of the composition. Pressure regulator valve spring will be pressed in the valve body, so that was closed. When the fuel pump began to pressure the oil, oil pressure wave is generated and the speed of sound from the fuel pump nozzle end to end transmission. The role of the needle valve on the hydraulic cone, and to overcome the spring force of the needle rises, so that the fuel flow into the pressure chamber through the spray nozzle. Once you stop the oil pump, pressure drop, the spring force immediately close the valve. Adjust the spring tension can change the injector opening pressure.
Divided by the head shape of the injector hole, needle and throttle shaft. 4-hole injector for the following semi-open combustion chamber (see engine); more injector holes are mostly used for open combustion chamber. The fuel injector spray cone angle of each hole can be small, long range spray. Hole number, pore size and pore wall thickness affect the spray characteristics, determined by engine model. Pintle injector for the swirl chamber, such as separate pre-combustion chamber type combustion chamber and combustion chamber in the compound. Needle axis of the head through the nozzle needle to form a circular jet channel, was to make the hollow cone spray mist. Similar to the throttle and the shaft pin, just by changing the shape of the valve pin axis formed when the throttle up, to change the injection rate, the engine working soft.
Injector nozzle end and the gas exposure, the temperature is very high. Long used to strengthen the engine nozzle, the needle and the needle with some precision the body farther away from the combustion chamber, so that the dual to thermal expansion deformation, the occurrence of seizure. Large Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with cooled injector. There is the pencil-type injector, small size, both for the cylinder head layout, but also with less exposure to gas, for small high-speed diesel engines.


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Auto classification

Auto classification, and started his motor racing, like car friends the easiest thing halo. Here’s a bit of tidy it awkward for interested friends for reference.
But first note that the States and the country’s official standards. But people also said the people his thoughts. Is not so absolute. Generally know the line. Moreover, the standard will also change with the times. Particularly in recent years in and out of some intermediate state models, classified according to current standards can not, which led to subsequent changes in standards.

First, by displacement of points

Distinguish between the engine displacement as a sign of car-level, is China’s practice. The total engine cylinder displacement means the engine all the work and the volume of the unit is “up.” Larger displacement of the car, the greater the power, better acceleration, interior decoration and the more advanced, the higher the grade.
Classification according to China’s automobile (GB9 ****- 89) the vehicle is classified as Class 8: 1 truck, 2, off-road vehicle, 3, dump truck, 4, tractor, 5, Special Purpose Vehicle, 6 , bus, 7, car, 8, spare Classification, 9, semi-trailer. 7130,7160,7180, and so we have a common identity means in the 7 car, after the 3-digit is the displacement.

Second, the long hours by car

Canadian car with a wheelbase length and width is also a classification.

Automotive grade drivers Remarks
The following car compact car width 3.5 M 1.6 M the following
Small cars 4M the following vehicle width 1.7 M the following
The following ordinary cars Width 4.5 M 1.8 M the following
The following limousine 5M Width 1.9 M the following
5M or more ultra-luxury sedan than vehicle width 1.9 M

Third, according to the size and displacement of points

Other countries in size and displacement, based on two factors (regardless of price.) This is the practice in Japan, with mandatory regulations.

Automotive grade LWH Specification Notes Specification Displacement
Light passenger vehicles (K-Car) not more than 3.40m, 1.48m, 2.00m maximum power does not exceed 0.660L not more than 64 horsepower / 47kW, is a specification unique to Japan, the use of black and yellow background license
Small passenger cars must not exceed 4.70m, 1.70m, 2.00m 2.0L (280 hp maximum power can not exceed / 206kW) license to use the word white background green, to 5 at the beginning of grade, also known as No. 5 car.
A more than ordinary passenger cars in a 4.70m, 1.70m, 2.00m maximum power can not exceed more than 2.0L 280 hp / 206kW green background with white characters a license to grade 3 at the beginning, also known as the No. 3 car.

According to Japanese law, 1 m 7 is an important dividing line, more than we should pay more taxes and insurance. Therefore, the Corolla, the sun, Civic, Lancer, Familia positioning are the family car, the prototype car body width is 1695mm. The Mazda 3 is the main market in Europe and America, and the same level to compete, so the width of 1.7 meters beyond the lot. The follow-up Nissan Sunny car TidaLatio remains 1695mm, Nissan shows the importance of the Japanese market.
2.0L displacement is the same line, Mitsubishi and Subaru ImprezaWRXSTi LancerEvo years of competition, is 2.0L + Turbo, maximum power can not open more than 280 horsepower.

Fourth, comprehensive classification

The car is divided into A, B, C, D class, which is the division of the German standards, mainly based on wheelbase, displacement, weight and other parameters, the more rearward in alphabetical order, the level of the longer wheelbase car, displacement and weight the greater the degree of luxury cars is also rising.

Examples of vehicle emissions rating that wheelbase
A00-class small car between 2 to 2.2 meters less than 1 liter Alto
A0-class small car from 2.2 to 2.3 m from 1 to 1.3 liters Charade hatchback
A-class small car from 2.3 to 2.45 m between 1 to 1.3 liters Jetta, POLO
B-level mid-range from 2.45 to 2.6 m cars rose 2.4-liter Audi 1.6 A4, Passat, Chinese, Oriental Son
C Class luxury sedan from 2.6 to 2.8 m from 2.3 to 3.0 liters Audi A6
D-level luxury sedan is larger than 2.8 meters above the 3.0-liter Mercedes-Benz S series, BMW 7 Series, Audi A8
. . .


A class is our economy,
B-class is our mid-size car,
C is our senior-level car,
D-class is our luxury car!
Grading standards in accordance with German car, A-level (including A0, A00) car is a small car; B-Class is a mid-range car; C-Class is a luxury sedan; and D-Class luxury sedan is the means, the main classification based on wheelbase, displacement, weight and other parameters, the more rearward in alphabetical order, the level of the longer wheelbase car, the greater the displacement and weight, the degree of luxury cars is also rising. A00-Class wheelbase should be between 2 to 2.2 meters, the engine displacement of less than 1 liter, for example, belongs to A00 Alto Class; A0-Class wheelbase 2.2 to 2.3 m, the displacement of 1 rose to 1.3 liters, more typically Charade hatchback car; general said its wheelbase A-Class range of about between 2.3 to 2.45 m, displacement of about 1.3 to 1.6 liters, FAW-Volkswagen Jetta , Shanghai Volkswagen’s POLO is regarded as a star among the A-Class; B-class mid-range sedan wheelbase is about 2.45 to 2.6 m between the 2.4-liter displacement rose from 1.6 in recent years, B-class car market has become fighting the domestic automobile enterprises the main battlefield, Audi A4, Passat, Chinese, Oriental Son and many other models belong to the B-class car camp; C Class luxury sedan’s wheelbase is about between 2.6 to 2.8 meters, engine emission amount of 2.3 to 3.0 liters, the largest known domestic non-Audi A6 C-Class is none other than; D-level luxury car most of the shape of style, interior space is very spacious, very strong engine power, and its wheelbase is greater than 2.8 meters are generally , the displacement of 3.0 liters or more basically, the current common D-Class Mercedes-Benz S series, BMW 7 Series, Audi A8 and other models.

SUV RV MPV in the end mean? 2005.3

SUV stands for Sport Utility Vehicle, or “sport utility vehicle.” SUV originated in the United States, but also in the U.S. market in recent years, the best-selling vehicles. In the U.S., pickup (Pickup) is a very popular vehicle, by the consumers. 80 years in the 20th century, SUV was designed to cater the interest of young white-collar pickup chassis in an envelope on the car developed. SUV4 wheel drive, the general car-type front suspension is independent suspension, rear suspension a non-independent suspension, higher ground clearance, to a certain extent, both cars have the comfort of off-road vehicles off-road performance; with MPV combination of style seat multi-functional, so that the vehicle can be both manned cargo, driving a wide range. In recent years, SUV development to comfort, some vehicles with luxury car features. For example, in 1999 Toyota introduced the Lexus RX300 and BMW X5, luxury cars are built based on the SUV.

RV stands for Recreation Vehicle, in Chinese means “recreational vehicle.” Since there is such a name, its coverage is more extensive, there is no strict category. Broadly speaking, in addition to cars and light passenger cars outside, can be attributable to the RV, including the SUV also belongs to RV. RV is a family car as a precondition, it is the most important feature is the appearance with the traditional San Xiangshi not the same car, looking like a hatchback car in some RV, and some off-road vehicles like RV. Some RV with car chassis, in the city and good on the roads, with emphasis on portfolio diversification car seat layout, such as the Honda Stream; some RV tiny chassis, reflects a fun, practical and economical combination of, for example, Suzuki Kei; some RV is a Class SUV, 4-wheel drive, you can Maxthon Quartet.

MPV stands for Multi-Purpose Vehicle, or utility vehicle. It combines the cars, station wagons and vans of the functions in one car seat can be adjusted for each, and a variety of combinations, for example can be in the back row seats can be turned into tables under the table, front seats can be rotated 180 degrees. This type of vehicle the Tsou launched by Renault in 1984, called Espace, received by the market and was the major automakers to follow suit, as in the last decade one of the most popular models. In recent years, tends to compact MPV, also known as S (Small)-MPV, bus drivers generally between 4.2 m -4.3 m, body compartment space is not compact but narrow seats generally have 5-7 seats. Shanghai-made Buick MPV has now GL8, S-MPV with Hainan Mazda Premacy.


SportsUtilityVehicles SUV is the abbreviation of the English, the Chinese meaning of sport utility vehicles. This mainly refers to those who design cutting-edge, novel four-wheel drive off-road vehicles. As people’s living standards, this car is not limited to cross-country, but also widely used in urban leisure and other purposes. In fact, the modern concept of off-road vehicles and the SUV has been rather confusing, such as Chevrolet “pioneers”, the German Mercedes-Benz M-class off-road vehicles and cheap Korean Santa Fe (SantaFe), quite bold outline of the wild off-road vehicles, At the same time, they are also typical SUV.

SUV originated in the 80s of last century the United States. Most attractive, in addition to high-end cars with comfort, but also have higher off-road and safety, and sense of movement, ease of daily life, travel and outdoor recreation. This is because the SUV is the car the front suspension coil spring independent suspension model


The total mileage of cars the number of life? That is how many kilometers can be scrapped? Time regardless.


Class of motor vehicle, non-operating not in accordance with the order to your car mileage to decide, you is private car, is defined as: such as non-commercial use of car for the 15-year period, the conditions of periodic inspection, they extend the useful life of 1 times / year (1 year – 15 years) 2 times / year (16 years – 20 years) 4 times / year (21 years), only with a trailer truck, mine operating special vehicles, taxis, 19 The following operating a variety of buses, mini-truck (1.8 tons or more) have mileage limitations ~ ~ or to the mandatory retirement age provisions. The life of the vehicle according to the quality of vehicle, the driver driving habits, post-maintenance, all models will be very different. Depreciation costs are generally non-commercial vehicles are not calculated according to mileage, is the prevailing prices of new cars down a few thousandths of a daily cumulative calculation, in general, German cars and European cars depreciation is lower, the U.S. Department of cars Secondly, the depreciation of Japanese cars then the highest proportion of China-made cars is not clear how much, if you sell it, the depreciation may be regional disparities, not a lot of mileage calculated by the day, mileage and more by how much money a kilometer count, I’ve seen these two algorithms.


New retirement criteria are as follows:  minibuses (including off-road vehicles) cars driving 500,000 km total;


A family car, not the words of fuel costs, the annual basic cost? What was it?

To 10 million family cars, 1.5 displacement example. 2006.4

The use of the high cost of restricting private car consumption is a major bottleneck as the price of the car down, buying a car or buy a better car, for city residents is already not difficult. However, buying a car easy to keep a car hard, “difficult” challenge is the high cost of the use. A recently published large cities on the domestic automotive consumer survey showed that: respondents tend to buy 10 million to 15 million the highest proportion of cars, up to 30%. Of 10 million to 15 million in domestic car on, he displacement of 1.6 liter engine car is more than prime time. In this, the reporter to the prices of 10 yuan, 1.6 liters of displacement as the benchmark five cars, forget about a car a year in Changsha, the use of cost: the first year to buy a car, you normally spending about the use of vehicles 25,000 yuan; Since then, the annual expenditure of about 16,000 normal yuan; use the longer will be a corresponding increase in annual maintenance and repair costs.

Required to pay the cost of the road before

1. The license fee: 460 yuan (RMB 800-1000 intermediary companies generally charge); 2. Purchase tax: the prices / 1.17 × 10% = 100000 元 / 1.17 × 10 = 8547 yuan; 3. Vehicle use tax: car around 180 yuan per year; 4. Maintenance fee: five or less (including five) payable monthly maintenance fee 100 yuan, the annual 1,200 yuan; 5. Toll road (in votes): 70 yuan per month, the annual 840 yuan; 6. Insurance: If all the existing insurance guarantee homogeneous, the car insurance premium to be around 6,000 yuan per year. The management of the vehicle will be provided for third party liability insurance Insurance species, about 1,040 yuan per year (the insurance companies is slightly different.)

In this way, so you completed all the formalities cool when on the road, get rid of 10 million to buy a car costs, you also have to invest at least 12,267 yuan or so in advance.

Expenditure in the normal daily use

The cost of car use, in addition to fuel costs, parking fees, repairs, etc., but also have to consider its depreciation costs. Therefore, the use of the car depreciation cost = car + cars daily use fee.

Car depreciation costs: the prices of produce in the present life of the state of cars increased from 10 years to 15 years, each car for one year, the prices of natural wear and tear to the 1 / 10. We calculated 10 million equal shares of the car, the annual depreciation charge is 100000/15 = 6667 yuan (but the costs have been paid in a one-time purchase of a car, it is not repeated here recorded, but you can enter the used-car market reference).

Fuel costs: fuel, including gasoline, oil, gear oil, brake oil. General 1.6 liters in the car driving in city roads, fuel consumption is 10 liters / per hundred kilometers or so. If the daily commute of 20 km, 600 km calculated monthly; monthly travel time, round trip calculated by 200 km; with relatives, friends, something borrowed car to 200 km per month per month running total of 1,000 km; Total 12,000 km a year. 93 # gasoline if the current 3.5 yuan / liter prices of gasoline is 4,200 yuan a year; oil fuel consumption by 1%, the year of 12 liters, 10 liters of oil change time, a total of 22 liters , 10 yuan per liter, to 220; coupled with gear oil, brake oil of about 250 yuan, a total of about 4670 yuan or so of oil.

Parking fee: how much due to the nature of the cost of living environment, living habits vary. To Changsha, the general residential garage and outdoor parking charges for the 60 to 300 yuan a month or so, we calculated the average price to 150 yuan; by downtown parking lot 5 yuan / hour, 30 hours a month to go out parking per month parking fee is: go out parking area 150 + 150 = 300. Year is 3,600 yuan.

The road toll and the car wash costs: costs of these two also have greater flexibility in the frequency varies due to go out. The road toll in this case to go out 4 100 yuan per month to calculate the year is 1,200 yuan. The car wash expenses in order to wash once a week basis, the general standard of 10 yuan / time, thus the cost of a monthly car wash to 40 yuan, a year is 480. Thus, the two year cost of 1680 yuan.

Expenditure above the sum of several annual expenditure of 9950 yuan or so you’ll need.

Spare parts replacement and repair costs

Regular maintenance fee: except in cases of accidents, generally pay their own costs of this part less. The car is moving about 5,000 km to make the first free security, general maintenance will regularly every 5,000 km in about 300 yuan, a year’s maintenance costs 600 yuan.

Wearing parts and spare parts costs: vehicle 3 filter (air filter, fuel filter, oil filter) the filter, to be replaced at least once a year; the normal battery life is generally about two years (maintenance-free battery about 4 years); tire life is generally 3 years or so, life mileage of 80,000 to 100,000 km; brake service life of 30,000 to 60,000 km, plus appliances and other accessories, per year parts to be cost around 2,000 yuan.

Vehicle overhaul, two maintenance and engine overhaul work assembly fee: This fee does not require spending a year or two cars, and how much expenses have a great relationship with the model. Generally made about 10 million cars annually to check and adjust the main secondary maintenance costs 2200 yuan (including: oil three filter materials, examination fee, two maintenance labor costs); the cost of engine overhaul around 8,000 yuan; for vehicle repair or assembly overhaul, maintenance spend at least 10,000 to 15,000 yuan (usually traveling 10 to 150,000 km overhaul once).

In summary, 10 million to buy a car as a benchmark car in the first year, due to hand in license fees and purchase tax, you about the normal expenditure of the use of vehicles 25,000 yuan; Since then, the annual normal spending about 16,000 yuan; the longer the use of cars each year will be a corresponding increase in the cost of maintenance and repair, if repair, that cost will be greatly increased.

In fact, the cost of the most important is the oil money will go for about 5.6 thousand


How much the first year of a new car? Costs of keeping a car 12 2006.7

– 12 car models first year costs

Compare Models

Buy a new car is often the first year to spend more money than the future, except insurance, car prices and decorative nude price is relatively fixed costs, and gasoline, maintenance, parking, tolls, etc. need to be considered, in the end the different prices grade the first year of new car models in need how much? Here we give a small account customers initially counted, in order to facilitate comparison of individual data were unified, the data only for car makers.

1.6-liter sedan costs almost

● Buick Excelle

Driving 20,000 km a year calculated in accordance with, the Excelle 1.6 to 93 using the fuel, the price was 5.09 yuan / liter, average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers urban area of 9 liters of fuel a year total cost of 9162 yuan, the average fuel cost of 763 yuan a month . 20,000 km a year, it means that requires one year of free maintenance and three times the normal maintenance. Excelle maintenance once every 5,000 km, price is 160 yuan (including man-hours fees, made by the project: oil / machine filters) costs 480 yuan a year, these three, you will catch up with the maintenance of a 1,000 km, the price more 140, (including man-hours fees, the added items: air filters / gas filter) Annual maintenance costs for the 620. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.

In so doing so, Excelle year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 15,402 yuan.

● Hyundai Elantra

Slightly fuel-efficient engine than the Excelle Elantra some, average fuel consumption of the urban area one hundred kilometers of 8.5 liters of fuel a year total cost of 8653 yuan, the average fuel cost of 721 yuan a month. Hyundai Elantra is also doing a 5,000 km, maintenance, maintenance costs for the 140. (Including man-hours fees, made by the project: oil / machine filters), and, like Excelle, which also has another 1000 km of major maintenance, need to replace the air filter and gas filter, the processing when the price is 170 yuan, annual maintenance costs for the 590 dollars. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.

In so doing so, Elantra year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 14,690 yuan

● Cerato 1.6

Cerato and Elantra as average fuel consumption of the urban area one hundred kilometers to 8.5 liters of fuel a year total cost of 8653 yuan, the average fuel cost of 721 yuan a month. Cerato 7500 km, but do a maintenance cost of maintenance of 7500 km, 159 million (including working hours fees, made by the project: oil / machine filters) 15,000 km a replacement steam filter prices there are 99 million. Annual maintenance fee of 417 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.

In so doing, then Cerato year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 15,190 yuan

● Volkswagen POLO 1.4

Volkswagen POLO 1.4 engine is quite fuel-efficient, urban one hundred km average fuel consumption of 7.5 liters of fuel a year total cost of 7635 yuan, the average fuel cost of 636 yuan a month. POLO car maintenance in two, one maintenance interval of 15,000 km, one is the maintenance interval of 7500 km, (including oil 105 yuan, working hours costs 90; 76 yuan oil filter, fuel filter 97 yuan, 54 hours costs element; air filter 182 yuan, 18 yuan fee work), so when the first 7,500 kilometers 422 million, 15,000 kilometers a second 622 million. Annual maintenance fee of 1,044 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.

In so doing so, the public POLO 1.4 a year on fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 14,299 yuan

● Peugeot 307 1.6

Peugeot 307 Urban hundred kilometers around the average fuel consumption of 8 liters a year in fuel costs a total of 8,144 yuan, with an average fuel cost of 679 yuan a month. Peugeot 307 is a maintenance of 7,500 kilometers to do, but the engine oil can be replaced at 15,000 km. Oil 148 / barrel, oil filters, 59 yuan / month, fuel filter 98 yuan / month, the air filter 105 yuan / month, maintenance man-hours cost 80 yuan, the annual needs of 20,000 km 2 times maintenance, cost about 680 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.

In so doing so, Peugeot 307 a year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 14,444 yuan

Comparative province Corolla sedan 1.8 liter

● Bora 1.8

Bora 1.8 average fuel consumption of the urban area one hundred kilometers of 9 liters a year, a total of 9,162 yuan in fuel costs, the average fuel cost of 763 yuan a month. Bora 1.8 is 7500 km to do a maintenance, oil filter 25.27 yuan, 37.14 yuan fuel filter, oil level 4.5L SJ was 107.55 yuan, the air filter processing fee 252.22 yuan. 20,000 km 2 year maintenance needs, costs about 800 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).

In so doing, then Bora 1.8 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 15,582 yuan

● Corolla 1.8

Corolla average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers is 7.5 liters a year, a total of 7,635 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs an average month, 636 yuan. Corolla maintenance cost of 379 yuan (including 49 per machine filter, air filter 125 yuan, 205 yuan steam filter), in addition to consumers but also take 200 man-hours fee. Corolla is a maintenance of 5,000 km, so at least 3 times the first year of maintenance, cost about 1737 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).

In so doing, then 1.8 year Corolla (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 14,992 yuan

● Fox 1.8

Fox, average fuel consumption of 1.8 per hundred kilometers of 9 liters a year, a total fuel cost of 9162 yuan, 763 yuan a month to fuel costs. Changed once every 5,000 km oil and oil filters, and accessories price 290 yuan, hours of work cost 60 yuan. Air filter and gas filter materials costs 142 yuan, 40 yuan hours fee required. Maintenance of 5,000 km a year, need to pay maintenance 3 times, total of 1596 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).

In so doing so, Fox 1.8 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 16,378 yuan

2.0 Accord the most economical cars

● Passat 1.8T

Passat 1.8T one hundred kilometers on average fuel consumption of 10, one year a total of 10,180 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs for the 848 yuan a month. Oil change, filter machine costs 174 yuan, replace the oil price is 253 yuan three filters, replacement air filter price is 56 yuan, working hours costs another operator. 7500 km maintenance time, maintenance costs within a year is 1800 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).

In so doing, then one year Passat 1.8T (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 17,600 yuan

● Honda Accord 2.4

Honda Accord 2.4 average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers is 10, one year a total of 10,180 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs for the 848 yuan a month. 5,000 km maintenance time, cost about 300-400 yuan. 20,000 km with a relatively large maintenance, oil additives, 108, engine oil 108, 158 yuan fuel filter, air filter 110, working hours costs 200 yuan, 684 yuan total. Of one year was about 1,500 yuan, in addition to added travel tax, road maintenance and parking costs 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.

In so doing, then, the Honda Accord 2.4 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 17,300 yuan

● Teana 2.3

Teana 2.3 average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers to 11 a year, a total of 11,198 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs for the 933 yuan a month. Oil, filters, the first two are free, they have to replace other oils generally 260 yuan, 50 yuan a machine filter, one should 310 yuan per 6,000 km for once, for about 4 times a year, a new car 2 times more then the general maintenance costs in 2000 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).

In so doing so, Teana 2.3 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 18,818 yuan

● Regal 2.5

Regal 2.5 average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers to 12 year total of 12,216 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs for the 1,018 yuan a month. 5,000 km is a general maintenance, do a replacement quantity cost about three filter 390 yuan, a year 4 times change, the total cost about 1560 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).

In so doing so, Regal 2.5 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 19,396 yuan

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