Auto classification, and started his motor racing, like car friends the easiest thing halo. Here’s a bit of tidy it awkward for interested friends for reference.
But first note that the States and the country’s official standards. But people also said the people his thoughts. Is not so absolute. Generally know the line. Moreover, the standard will also change with the times. Particularly in recent years in and out of some intermediate state models, classified according to current standards can not, which led to subsequent changes in standards.
First, by displacement of points
Distinguish between the engine displacement as a sign of car-level, is China’s practice. The total engine cylinder displacement means the engine all the work and the volume of the unit is “up.” Larger displacement of the car, the greater the power, better acceleration, interior decoration and the more advanced, the higher the grade.
Classification according to China’s automobile (GB9 ****- 89) the vehicle is classified as Class 8: 1 truck, 2, off-road vehicle, 3, dump truck, 4, tractor, 5, Special Purpose Vehicle, 6 , bus, 7, car, 8, spare Classification, 9, semi-trailer. 7130,7160,7180, and so we have a common identity means in the 7 car, after the 3-digit is the displacement.
Second, the long hours by car
Canadian car with a wheelbase length and width is also a classification.
Automotive grade drivers Remarks
The following car compact car width 3.5 M 1.6 M the following
Small cars 4M the following vehicle width 1.7 M the following
The following ordinary cars Width 4.5 M 1.8 M the following
The following limousine 5M Width 1.9 M the following
5M or more ultra-luxury sedan than vehicle width 1.9 M
Third, according to the size and displacement of points
Other countries in size and displacement, based on two factors (regardless of price.) This is the practice in Japan, with mandatory regulations.
Automotive grade LWH Specification Notes Specification Displacement
Light passenger vehicles (K-Car) not more than 3.40m, 1.48m, 2.00m maximum power does not exceed 0.660L not more than 64 horsepower / 47kW, is a specification unique to Japan, the use of black and yellow background license
Small passenger cars must not exceed 4.70m, 1.70m, 2.00m 2.0L (280 hp maximum power can not exceed / 206kW) license to use the word white background green, to 5 at the beginning of grade, also known as No. 5 car.
A more than ordinary passenger cars in a 4.70m, 1.70m, 2.00m maximum power can not exceed more than 2.0L 280 hp / 206kW green background with white characters a license to grade 3 at the beginning, also known as the No. 3 car.
According to Japanese law, 1 m 7 is an important dividing line, more than we should pay more taxes and insurance. Therefore, the Corolla, the sun, Civic, Lancer, Familia positioning are the family car, the prototype car body width is 1695mm. The Mazda 3 is the main market in Europe and America, and the same level to compete, so the width of 1.7 meters beyond the lot. The follow-up Nissan Sunny car TidaLatio remains 1695mm, Nissan shows the importance of the Japanese market.
2.0L displacement is the same line, Mitsubishi and Subaru ImprezaWRXSTi LancerEvo years of competition, is 2.0L + Turbo, maximum power can not open more than 280 horsepower.
Fourth, comprehensive classification
The car is divided into A, B, C, D class, which is the division of the German standards, mainly based on wheelbase, displacement, weight and other parameters, the more rearward in alphabetical order, the level of the longer wheelbase car, displacement and weight the greater the degree of luxury cars is also rising.
Examples of vehicle emissions rating that wheelbase
A00-class small car between 2 to 2.2 meters less than 1 liter Alto
A0-class small car from 2.2 to 2.3 m from 1 to 1.3 liters Charade hatchback
A-class small car from 2.3 to 2.45 m between 1 to 1.3 liters Jetta, POLO
B-level mid-range from 2.45 to 2.6 m cars rose 2.4-liter Audi 1.6 A4, Passat, Chinese, Oriental Son
C Class luxury sedan from 2.6 to 2.8 m from 2.3 to 3.0 liters Audi A6
D-level luxury sedan is larger than 2.8 meters above the 3.0-liter Mercedes-Benz S series, BMW 7 Series, Audi A8
. . .
A class is our economy,
B-class is our mid-size car,
C is our senior-level car,
D-class is our luxury car!
Grading standards in accordance with German car, A-level (including A0, A00) car is a small car; B-Class is a mid-range car; C-Class is a luxury sedan; and D-Class luxury sedan is the means, the main classification based on wheelbase, displacement, weight and other parameters, the more rearward in alphabetical order, the level of the longer wheelbase car, the greater the displacement and weight, the degree of luxury cars is also rising. A00-Class wheelbase should be between 2 to 2.2 meters, the engine displacement of less than 1 liter, for example, belongs to A00 Alto Class; A0-Class wheelbase 2.2 to 2.3 m, the displacement of 1 rose to 1.3 liters, more typically Charade hatchback car; general said its wheelbase A-Class range of about between 2.3 to 2.45 m, displacement of about 1.3 to 1.6 liters, FAW-Volkswagen Jetta , Shanghai Volkswagen’s POLO is regarded as a star among the A-Class; B-class mid-range sedan wheelbase is about 2.45 to 2.6 m between the 2.4-liter displacement rose from 1.6 in recent years, B-class car market has become fighting the domestic automobile enterprises the main battlefield, Audi A4, Passat, Chinese, Oriental Son and many other models belong to the B-class car camp; C Class luxury sedan’s wheelbase is about between 2.6 to 2.8 meters, engine emission amount of 2.3 to 3.0 liters, the largest known domestic non-Audi A6 C-Class is none other than; D-level luxury car most of the shape of style, interior space is very spacious, very strong engine power, and its wheelbase is greater than 2.8 meters are generally , the displacement of 3.0 liters or more basically, the current common D-Class Mercedes-Benz S series, BMW 7 Series, Audi A8 and other models.
SUV RV MPV in the end mean? 2005.3
SUV stands for Sport Utility Vehicle, or “sport utility vehicle.” SUV originated in the United States, but also in the U.S. market in recent years, the best-selling vehicles. In the U.S., pickup (Pickup) is a very popular vehicle, by the consumers. 80 years in the 20th century, SUV was designed to cater the interest of young white-collar pickup chassis in an envelope on the car developed. SUV4 wheel drive, the general car-type front suspension is independent suspension, rear suspension a non-independent suspension, higher ground clearance, to a certain extent, both cars have the comfort of off-road vehicles off-road performance; with MPV combination of style seat multi-functional, so that the vehicle can be both manned cargo, driving a wide range. In recent years, SUV development to comfort, some vehicles with luxury car features. For example, in 1999 Toyota introduced the Lexus RX300 and BMW X5, luxury cars are built based on the SUV.
RV stands for Recreation Vehicle, in Chinese means “recreational vehicle.” Since there is such a name, its coverage is more extensive, there is no strict category. Broadly speaking, in addition to cars and light passenger cars outside, can be attributable to the RV, including the SUV also belongs to RV. RV is a family car as a precondition, it is the most important feature is the appearance with the traditional San Xiangshi not the same car, looking like a hatchback car in some RV, and some off-road vehicles like RV. Some RV with car chassis, in the city and good on the roads, with emphasis on portfolio diversification car seat layout, such as the Honda Stream; some RV tiny chassis, reflects a fun, practical and economical combination of, for example, Suzuki Kei; some RV is a Class SUV, 4-wheel drive, you can Maxthon Quartet.
MPV stands for Multi-Purpose Vehicle, or utility vehicle. It combines the cars, station wagons and vans of the functions in one car seat can be adjusted for each, and a variety of combinations, for example can be in the back row seats can be turned into tables under the table, front seats can be rotated 180 degrees. This type of vehicle the Tsou launched by Renault in 1984, called Espace, received by the market and was the major automakers to follow suit, as in the last decade one of the most popular models. In recent years, tends to compact MPV, also known as S (Small)-MPV, bus drivers generally between 4.2 m -4.3 m, body compartment space is not compact but narrow seats generally have 5-7 seats. Shanghai-made Buick MPV has now GL8, S-MPV with Hainan Mazda Premacy.
SportsUtilityVehicles SUV is the abbreviation of the English, the Chinese meaning of sport utility vehicles. This mainly refers to those who design cutting-edge, novel four-wheel drive off-road vehicles. As people’s living standards, this car is not limited to cross-country, but also widely used in urban leisure and other purposes. In fact, the modern concept of off-road vehicles and the SUV has been rather confusing, such as Chevrolet “pioneers”, the German Mercedes-Benz M-class off-road vehicles and cheap Korean Santa Fe (SantaFe), quite bold outline of the wild off-road vehicles, At the same time, they are also typical SUV.
SUV originated in the 80s of last century the United States. Most attractive, in addition to high-end cars with comfort, but also have higher off-road and safety, and sense of movement, ease of daily life, travel and outdoor recreation. This is because the SUV is the car the front suspension coil spring independent suspension model
The total mileage of cars the number of life? That is how many kilometers can be scrapped? Time regardless.
Class of motor vehicle, non-operating not in accordance with the order to your car mileage to decide, you is private car, is defined as: such as non-commercial use of car for the 15-year period, the conditions of periodic inspection, they extend the useful life of 1 times / year (1 year – 15 years) 2 times / year (16 years – 20 years) 4 times / year (21 years), only with a trailer truck, mine operating special vehicles, taxis, 19 The following operating a variety of buses, mini-truck (1.8 tons or more) have mileage limitations ~ ~ or to the mandatory retirement age provisions. The life of the vehicle according to the quality of vehicle, the driver driving habits, post-maintenance, all models will be very different. Depreciation costs are generally non-commercial vehicles are not calculated according to mileage, is the prevailing prices of new cars down a few thousandths of a daily cumulative calculation, in general, German cars and European cars depreciation is lower, the U.S. Department of cars Secondly, the depreciation of Japanese cars then the highest proportion of China-made cars is not clear how much, if you sell it, the depreciation may be regional disparities, not a lot of mileage calculated by the day, mileage and more by how much money a kilometer count, I’ve seen these two algorithms.
New retirement criteria are as follows: minibuses (including off-road vehicles) cars driving 500,000 km total;
A family car, not the words of fuel costs, the annual basic cost? What was it?
To 10 million family cars, 1.5 displacement example. 2006.4
The use of the high cost of restricting private car consumption is a major bottleneck as the price of the car down, buying a car or buy a better car, for city residents is already not difficult. However, buying a car easy to keep a car hard, “difficult” challenge is the high cost of the use. A recently published large cities on the domestic automotive consumer survey showed that: respondents tend to buy 10 million to 15 million the highest proportion of cars, up to 30%. Of 10 million to 15 million in domestic car on, he displacement of 1.6 liter engine car is more than prime time. In this, the reporter to the prices of 10 yuan, 1.6 liters of displacement as the benchmark five cars, forget about a car a year in Changsha, the use of cost: the first year to buy a car, you normally spending about the use of vehicles 25,000 yuan; Since then, the annual expenditure of about 16,000 normal yuan; use the longer will be a corresponding increase in annual maintenance and repair costs.
Required to pay the cost of the road before
1. The license fee: 460 yuan (RMB 800-1000 intermediary companies generally charge); 2. Purchase tax: the prices / 1.17 × 10% = 100000 元 / 1.17 × 10 = 8547 yuan; 3. Vehicle use tax: car around 180 yuan per year; 4. Maintenance fee: five or less (including five) payable monthly maintenance fee 100 yuan, the annual 1,200 yuan; 5. Toll road (in votes): 70 yuan per month, the annual 840 yuan; 6. Insurance: If all the existing insurance guarantee homogeneous, the car insurance premium to be around 6,000 yuan per year. The management of the vehicle will be provided for third party liability insurance Insurance species, about 1,040 yuan per year (the insurance companies is slightly different.)
In this way, so you completed all the formalities cool when on the road, get rid of 10 million to buy a car costs, you also have to invest at least 12,267 yuan or so in advance.
Expenditure in the normal daily use
The cost of car use, in addition to fuel costs, parking fees, repairs, etc., but also have to consider its depreciation costs. Therefore, the use of the car depreciation cost = car + cars daily use fee.
Car depreciation costs: the prices of produce in the present life of the state of cars increased from 10 years to 15 years, each car for one year, the prices of natural wear and tear to the 1 / 10. We calculated 10 million equal shares of the car, the annual depreciation charge is 100000/15 = 6667 yuan (but the costs have been paid in a one-time purchase of a car, it is not repeated here recorded, but you can enter the used-car market reference).
Fuel costs: fuel, including gasoline, oil, gear oil, brake oil. General 1.6 liters in the car driving in city roads, fuel consumption is 10 liters / per hundred kilometers or so. If the daily commute of 20 km, 600 km calculated monthly; monthly travel time, round trip calculated by 200 km; with relatives, friends, something borrowed car to 200 km per month per month running total of 1,000 km; Total 12,000 km a year. 93 # gasoline if the current 3.5 yuan / liter prices of gasoline is 4,200 yuan a year; oil fuel consumption by 1%, the year of 12 liters, 10 liters of oil change time, a total of 22 liters , 10 yuan per liter, to 220; coupled with gear oil, brake oil of about 250 yuan, a total of about 4670 yuan or so of oil.
Parking fee: how much due to the nature of the cost of living environment, living habits vary. To Changsha, the general residential garage and outdoor parking charges for the 60 to 300 yuan a month or so, we calculated the average price to 150 yuan; by downtown parking lot 5 yuan / hour, 30 hours a month to go out parking per month parking fee is: go out parking area 150 + 150 = 300. Year is 3,600 yuan.
The road toll and the car wash costs: costs of these two also have greater flexibility in the frequency varies due to go out. The road toll in this case to go out 4 100 yuan per month to calculate the year is 1,200 yuan. The car wash expenses in order to wash once a week basis, the general standard of 10 yuan / time, thus the cost of a monthly car wash to 40 yuan, a year is 480. Thus, the two year cost of 1680 yuan.
Expenditure above the sum of several annual expenditure of 9950 yuan or so you’ll need.
Spare parts replacement and repair costs
Regular maintenance fee: except in cases of accidents, generally pay their own costs of this part less. The car is moving about 5,000 km to make the first free security, general maintenance will regularly every 5,000 km in about 300 yuan, a year’s maintenance costs 600 yuan.
Wearing parts and spare parts costs: vehicle 3 filter (air filter, fuel filter, oil filter) the filter, to be replaced at least once a year; the normal battery life is generally about two years (maintenance-free battery about 4 years); tire life is generally 3 years or so, life mileage of 80,000 to 100,000 km; brake service life of 30,000 to 60,000 km, plus appliances and other accessories, per year parts to be cost around 2,000 yuan.
Vehicle overhaul, two maintenance and engine overhaul work assembly fee: This fee does not require spending a year or two cars, and how much expenses have a great relationship with the model. Generally made about 10 million cars annually to check and adjust the main secondary maintenance costs 2200 yuan (including: oil three filter materials, examination fee, two maintenance labor costs); the cost of engine overhaul around 8,000 yuan; for vehicle repair or assembly overhaul, maintenance spend at least 10,000 to 15,000 yuan (usually traveling 10 to 150,000 km overhaul once).
In summary, 10 million to buy a car as a benchmark car in the first year, due to hand in license fees and purchase tax, you about the normal expenditure of the use of vehicles 25,000 yuan; Since then, the annual normal spending about 16,000 yuan; the longer the use of cars each year will be a corresponding increase in the cost of maintenance and repair, if repair, that cost will be greatly increased.
In fact, the cost of the most important is the oil money will go for about 5.6 thousand
How much the first year of a new car? Costs of keeping a car 12 2006.7
– 12 car models first year costs
Buy a new car is often the first year to spend more money than the future, except insurance, car prices and decorative nude price is relatively fixed costs, and gasoline, maintenance, parking, tolls, etc. need to be considered, in the end the different prices grade the first year of new car models in need how much? Here we give a small account customers initially counted, in order to facilitate comparison of individual data were unified, the data only for car makers.
1.6-liter sedan costs almost
● Buick Excelle
Driving 20,000 km a year calculated in accordance with, the Excelle 1.6 to 93 using the fuel, the price was 5.09 yuan / liter, average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers urban area of 9 liters of fuel a year total cost of 9162 yuan, the average fuel cost of 763 yuan a month . 20,000 km a year, it means that requires one year of free maintenance and three times the normal maintenance. Excelle maintenance once every 5,000 km, price is 160 yuan (including man-hours fees, made by the project: oil / machine filters) costs 480 yuan a year, these three, you will catch up with the maintenance of a 1,000 km, the price more 140, (including man-hours fees, the added items: air filters / gas filter) Annual maintenance costs for the 620. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.
In so doing so, Excelle year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 15,402 yuan.
● Hyundai Elantra
Slightly fuel-efficient engine than the Excelle Elantra some, average fuel consumption of the urban area one hundred kilometers of 8.5 liters of fuel a year total cost of 8653 yuan, the average fuel cost of 721 yuan a month. Hyundai Elantra is also doing a 5,000 km, maintenance, maintenance costs for the 140. (Including man-hours fees, made by the project: oil / machine filters), and, like Excelle, which also has another 1000 km of major maintenance, need to replace the air filter and gas filter, the processing when the price is 170 yuan, annual maintenance costs for the 590 dollars. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.
In so doing so, Elantra year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 14,690 yuan
● Cerato 1.6
Cerato and Elantra as average fuel consumption of the urban area one hundred kilometers to 8.5 liters of fuel a year total cost of 8653 yuan, the average fuel cost of 721 yuan a month. Cerato 7500 km, but do a maintenance cost of maintenance of 7500 km, 159 million (including working hours fees, made by the project: oil / machine filters) 15,000 km a replacement steam filter prices there are 99 million. Annual maintenance fee of 417 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.
In so doing, then Cerato year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 15,190 yuan
● Volkswagen POLO 1.4
Volkswagen POLO 1.4 engine is quite fuel-efficient, urban one hundred km average fuel consumption of 7.5 liters of fuel a year total cost of 7635 yuan, the average fuel cost of 636 yuan a month. POLO car maintenance in two, one maintenance interval of 15,000 km, one is the maintenance interval of 7500 km, (including oil 105 yuan, working hours costs 90; 76 yuan oil filter, fuel filter 97 yuan, 54 hours costs element; air filter 182 yuan, 18 yuan fee work), so when the first 7,500 kilometers 422 million, 15,000 kilometers a second 622 million. Annual maintenance fee of 1,044 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.
In so doing so, the public POLO 1.4 a year on fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 14,299 yuan
● Peugeot 307 1.6
Peugeot 307 Urban hundred kilometers around the average fuel consumption of 8 liters a year in fuel costs a total of 8,144 yuan, with an average fuel cost of 679 yuan a month. Peugeot 307 is a maintenance of 7,500 kilometers to do, but the engine oil can be replaced at 15,000 km. Oil 148 / barrel, oil filters, 59 yuan / month, fuel filter 98 yuan / month, the air filter 105 yuan / month, maintenance man-hours cost 80 yuan, the annual needs of 20,000 km 2 times maintenance, cost about 680 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.
In so doing so, Peugeot 307 a year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 14,444 yuan
Comparative province Corolla sedan 1.8 liter
● Bora 1.8
Bora 1.8 average fuel consumption of the urban area one hundred kilometers of 9 liters a year, a total of 9,162 yuan in fuel costs, the average fuel cost of 763 yuan a month. Bora 1.8 is 7500 km to do a maintenance, oil filter 25.27 yuan, 37.14 yuan fuel filter, oil level 4.5L SJ was 107.55 yuan, the air filter processing fee 252.22 yuan. 20,000 km 2 year maintenance needs, costs about 800 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).
In so doing, then Bora 1.8 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 15,582 yuan
● Corolla 1.8
Corolla average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers is 7.5 liters a year, a total of 7,635 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs an average month, 636 yuan. Corolla maintenance cost of 379 yuan (including 49 per machine filter, air filter 125 yuan, 205 yuan steam filter), in addition to consumers but also take 200 man-hours fee. Corolla is a maintenance of 5,000 km, so at least 3 times the first year of maintenance, cost about 1737 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).
In so doing, then 1.8 year Corolla (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 14,992 yuan
● Fox 1.8
Fox, average fuel consumption of 1.8 per hundred kilometers of 9 liters a year, a total fuel cost of 9162 yuan, 763 yuan a month to fuel costs. Changed once every 5,000 km oil and oil filters, and accessories price 290 yuan, hours of work cost 60 yuan. Air filter and gas filter materials costs 142 yuan, 40 yuan hours fee required. Maintenance of 5,000 km a year, need to pay maintenance 3 times, total of 1596 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).
In so doing so, Fox 1.8 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 16,378 yuan
2.0 Accord the most economical cars
● Passat 1.8T
Passat 1.8T one hundred kilometers on average fuel consumption of 10, one year a total of 10,180 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs for the 848 yuan a month. Oil change, filter machine costs 174 yuan, replace the oil price is 253 yuan three filters, replacement air filter price is 56 yuan, working hours costs another operator. 7500 km maintenance time, maintenance costs within a year is 1800 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).
In so doing, then one year Passat 1.8T (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 17,600 yuan
● Honda Accord 2.4
Honda Accord 2.4 average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers is 10, one year a total of 10,180 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs for the 848 yuan a month. 5,000 km maintenance time, cost about 300-400 yuan. 20,000 km with a relatively large maintenance, oil additives, 108, engine oil 108, 158 yuan fuel filter, air filter 110, working hours costs 200 yuan, 684 yuan total. Of one year was about 1,500 yuan, in addition to added travel tax, road maintenance and parking costs 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year.
In so doing, then, the Honda Accord 2.4 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 17,300 yuan
● Teana 2.3
Teana 2.3 average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers to 11 a year, a total of 11,198 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs for the 933 yuan a month. Oil, filters, the first two are free, they have to replace other oils generally 260 yuan, 50 yuan a machine filter, one should 310 yuan per 6,000 km for once, for about 4 times a year, a new car 2 times more then the general maintenance costs in 2000 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).
In so doing so, Teana 2.3 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 18,818 yuan
● Regal 2.5
Regal 2.5 average fuel consumption per hundred kilometers to 12 year total of 12,216 yuan in fuel costs, fuel costs for the 1,018 yuan a month. 5,000 km is a general maintenance, do a replacement quantity cost about three filter 390 yuan, a year 4 times change, the total cost about 1560 yuan. With vehicle use tax, road maintenance and parking 300 yuan / month, as well as tolls 500 yuan / year (conservative estimate).
In so doing so, Regal 2.5 year (20,000 km) of fuel, maintenance costs and the necessary number of tax Total: 19,396 yuan